Friar Eberhard may have only knew of the new site of the castle and replaced the village name of Salz by the abbreviation "Salzb. The walled stone castle replaced an older palisaded ditch hewn from the limestone rock. This discovery was only made in during an official excavation of the foundations.
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This originally wooden, protective rampart is about a metre behind the stone wall and was probably a provisional enhancement to protect the site. The oldest curtain wall was obviously not fully developed. The elements of the fortified site datable to the first phase of construction are up to four metres high, but there are long stretches where only the foundation seems to have been laid. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the castle in Germany. For the fortress at Salzburg, Austria, see Hohensalzburg Fortress. Salzburg Castle. View through the main gate into the castle court.
Right: the neo-Romanesque castle chapel.
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Limited quantities of uniforms, weapons and equipment were procured; billeting, rations, pay and medical care were arranged for. Training started, but a great deal of improvisation was necessary before things were running smoothly, because the tight supply situation precluded the arrival of German equipment. Very much to their dismay, the. There were no heavy weapons. The distance separating the German-Arab battalion from the Generalkommando complicated matters greatly. It was difficult for the small German staff in Tunisia to shoulder the enormous workload which fell to its share.
While the Moslem companies of volunteers were being organized, the troops of the German-Arab battalion guarded the coast of the Gulf of Hammamet from Cape Bon to Susa. During this period by order of O. Sued to organize a number of demolition squads for the purpose of blasting objectives in the enemy rear along the railroads from Algiers. Volunteers had to provide proof of two years of service in the army of their own country before they were accepted. Former French colonial troops were mixed with Italian Sahara veterans, British-trained fighters of the Middle East countries, and Foreign legion soldiers.
By mid-February German weapons had arrived in Africa in sufficient quantities, and the companies of Moslem volunteers were raised to battalion status. Organized were 2 Tunisian battalions, 1 Algerian battalion, and 1 Moroccan battalion. Each battalion consisted of three infantry companies armed with carbines and light machine guns, and one heavy weapons company equipped with mortars and heavy machine guns.
Medical and signal equipment was scarce. Trucks and horse-drawn vehicles were altogether lacking. Since the combat training of the Arabs was still in its early stages, the battalions would not be an effective fighting force for some time. No replacements were available for these leaders. The Generalkommando was involved in heavy defensive fighting along the Mius River in southern Russia and so was unable to spare personnel as replacements. Although as a general rule the death of a commander did not result in the dissolution of a German military unit, in a case such as this where special conditions prevailed the loss could have serious consequences.
Both of the dead officers had performed their duties well, and both spoke Arabic fluently. It was difficult to find other men who were as expert in the field of German-Arab relations. From February the Germans in Africa attacked toward Tebessa. This attack failed and it became necessary to shift to the defensive.
By mid-March the situation had become so critical that it was necessary to employ a battalion of Tunisian troops in the central sector of the German line. The experiment had disastrous results. The Tunisians were led up to their positions in the dark through hilly terrain.
Since it was cold the combat outposts lit fires, whereupon they were taken under fire from the rear by their own troops. This alerted the enemy. The latter immediately attacked and succeeded in overrunning the Tunisians. Fifth Panzer Army Headquarters concluded from this experience that it would be better not to use the Moslem battalions in the forward areas.
Instead they were employed in the rear, constructing defensive positions. On 28 February the commander and staff of the Generalkommando was alerted for movement from Russia to another theater.
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Subsequently these elements of the Special Corps were transferred to Reggio in southern Italy and placed under 0. All tactical and headquarters units of the corps remained behind, attached to the XXIV Panzer Corps which had taken over its sector.
Sued had earlier requested two corps headquarters for use in Africa. However, when the commander of the Generalkommand o arrived at Headquarters, O. Sued, he had to report that his units had remained in Russia and that, without its signal units the Generalkommando was useless.
This group included 2 infantry companies and 1 heavy company, the latter composed of 1 heavy infantry howitzer platoon, 1 mm antiaircraft platoon, 1 antitank platoon, and 1 heavy machine-gun platoon. During the following weeks this task force was employed in the northern sector of the front, southwest of Mater and in the Sedyenane Valley. It served as the tactical reserve of an Austrian division, and later with the th Light Africa Division.
Few details are available concerning the fighting done by the group, but it is known to have been employed next to a parachute engineer battalion under a Major Witzig. On this date the task force successfully repelled a thrust by American units. On 3 May it acted as rear guard of an infantry regiment commanded by an officer named Bailerstaedt? Three days later it formed the reserve of a Luftwaffe regiment employed in ground action commanded by Barenthin? On the afternoon of 7 May the group was to have assumed responsibility for the protection of an antiaircraft unit established along the Bizerta—Tunis railroad.
As the task force was about to move into position the antlaircraft unit was overrun by American tanks. The following day the supply trains of the task force were disbanded, its records were destroyed, and the remnants of the group—less than men—assembled at Porto Farina, north of Tunis, Here from 4, to 5, other Axis soldiers waited in well-disciplined ranks for ferries to evacuate them.
The majority of the Arab soldiers in the task force remained with the German troops and went voluntarily into captivity with them. The Moslem battalions activated in Tunisia in February had not been as thoroughly trained as the German-Arab battalion.
The time and the German instructors needed to train them were both lacking, and the general situation was unfavorable. When the Generalkommando was transferred from Russia to Italy, it lost all of its units except the German-Arab battalion, which, of course was in Tunisia at the time. Nevertheless a Wehrmacht High Command order dated 29 March emphasized that the Generalkommando would continue to function as its field agency for Arab affairs.
On 8 April the Generalkommando was redesignated Generalkommando s. The pertinent order contained a paragraph to the effect that the Special Corps was to organize a staff to deal with all political issues and propaganda connected with the Li o si era world. This staff was to serve with the German-Arab battalion. The corps was therefore made available to O. Sued for employment in southern Greece. It arrived in Greece at the end of May At this time the corps was finally separated from the th Special Regiment, which was reorganized as the 92d mtz Infantry.
Meanwhile elements of the German-Arab battalion which had remained in Palermo Sicily while the bulk of the battalion was employed in Tunisia, were ordered incorporated into the th German-Arab Battalion, a unit activated at Doellersheirn in Germany en 1 June This directive read in part as follows:. The battalion is under the direct command of the Generalkommando. Initially it will organize into units all Arabs ready to serve the German cause and will train them in guerilla tactics. For this purpose it will give the Arabs: a. Basic infantry training, b.
Training in teamwork i'or surprise raids to be carried out by squads and half-squad size units, c.
Manual Plateau (In der Fremde 2) (German Edition)
Training in demolition techniques ranger-type training. Lieutenant Rolf is appointed commander of this company. At present this agency is mainly an intelligence agency. After its transfer to the zone of C. Sued the battalion will be employed for guard duties in addition to its normal training routine.
The program stressed the training of very small units. Experience had shown that this method was successful. It was also intended to use the Arabs who had already received training as parachutists in Wittstock, but somehow a parachute company was never actually formed. The Arab Recruiting Center in Paris had been organized in , because part of the Arabs volunteering for duty with the Axis came from French colonies.
One of the tasks of the Center was to watch over the welfare of the dependents of these men.