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Exclusion of select titles and products may apply. Browse Publications. What is Urban Open Space 1. There is no definition of this term common to all concerned fields. However, it is widespread and its broadest meaning includes private and public city space s that cannot be considered as interiors: squares, streets, parks, private gardens, or steps in front of buildings, among others. Learn more in: Towards a Virtual Soundwalk.
Find more terms and definitions using our Dictionary Search. Urban Open Space appears in:. Handbook of Research on Perception-Driven Search inside this book for more research materials. Recommend to a Librarian Recommend to a Colleague. Looking for research materials? Search our database for more Urban Open Space downloadable research papers. A set of aerial photographs from , and Ikonos images from were utilized.
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The aerial photographs were on scale. The resolution of pan sharpened Ikonos was 1 m. Some ancillary data such as city plans, pictures and historic documents also assisted the analyses. Aerials were, first, georeferenced by using already rectified Ikonos image. RMS error was 0. Second, they were registered to UTM Zone An image enhancement technique contrast adjustment is applied to improve the visual qualities of the aerial photographs. Analysis was done in ArcGIS 8. Types of open spaces were defined through field studies, scrutinizing the materials and creating GIS coverages.
Also, the magnitude of change in the open spaces was investigated by using GIS technology.
Fourteen different open space categories were defined: Natural, natural drainage, agricultural, open lands, vacant, military, transportation, industry, archeological, park, canal, public, school and sport. The polygons for each type were created by on screen digitization and their related features were entered manually to the attribute table.
This procedure is pursued for each study period. In the attribute table of each year exists columns pertaining to type, the area and perimeter of each polygon. Also a set of attributes-percentage of permeable surfaces, ownership, access rights and management-are inserted to the attribute table of Ownership, access rights and management attributes are important to understand the institutional structure and the type of use.
Percentage of permeable surfaces is used as an indicator of ecological integrity Forman, ; Schueler, The numbers for natural, natural drainage, agricultural, open lands, vacant, military, transportation, industry and archeological areas are adopted from Deniz and the numbers for parks and natural drainage are from Esbah and Tuncay and Esbah respectively.
For the categories of public, school, sport and canal, area of impervious surfaces such as pavements, buildings and compressed soil due to foot traffic are extracted from the total area of the each open space polygon. The ratio of remaining pervious soil surfaces over the whole area yielded the permeability value of a polygon. Average of the numbers yielded the overall percentage of the permeable surfaces for each open space type. Open space pattern of Aydin changed due to historic land use development.
Open spaces shrank continuously from Agricultural areas are mostly affected by this transformation Fig. Amount of agricultural land decreased Loss of agricultural areas due to urbanization is a worldwide phenomenon. Even though, urbanization is stated as one of the greatest threats to sustainable agriculture by FAO , the loss of these ecologically and economically important patches continues.
In addition to its economic benefits, these areas present opportunities for outdoor recreation such as hobby gardens. Agricultural land has a private ownership Table 2 status in that the farmers have the right to sell their land for construction. Some measurement such as taxation could be taken to prevent their purchase for development. Effective management of agricultural landscape is non-existed, even though the local office of the Ministry of Agriculture conducts different programs.
Ecological and social benefits of this type of open spaces rely on the type of agriculture; therefore the sustainable agriculture that respects the ecological qualities of the ecosystem should be pursued. Open lands of derelict and gap sites diminished in a 25 year period.
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The percentage of such patches was constituted the 6. The historic land use pattern is very compact and not sprawling in the town. Because traditional land use development practice tended to utilize available open lots before further expansion, the magnitude of these openings in the landscape dropped. However, lately, the urban expansion style is being influenced by the examples from developed countries and suburbanization causing sprawled development is entering the local planning agenda.
Understanding of the positive and negative aspects of suburbanization and its implementation in the Turkish context is necessary.
Open lands have a relatively higher permeable surfaces and are rich in native species Deniz, In this respect, they could shelter different wildlife, even though their visual qualities rather low in the highly manicured urban landscape. Whether to convert these lots to building blocks is in the hands of the owners private citizens or the municipality.
Currently, everyone can access to the open lands. Management of these areas is on the municipality; however, due to budget constraints these areas look abandoned. Because it was already a cultural landscape of heavy agricultural practices, the study site did not contain ample natural patches. The existing natural patches are the extension of mountainous natural landscape on the north of the town. The city was not able to extend that direction due to the rugged characteristics of the landscape and the cost of bringing infrastructure.
Urban open space
The potential of this natural landscape on the north should be recognized as a source area and the dispersal opportunities of them into urban matrix should be searched. Natural drainage corridors including Tabakhane stream decreased between and These corridors were taken over by residential and commercial land uses.
The sections of Tabakhane stream in the municipal boundaries are canalized during time hence contributing to the loss of natural drainage areas. A detailed analysis of the stream environment is presented in Tuncay and Esbah Their research showed that not only the area of the stream is decreased, but also its corridor is filled with less ecologically compatible land uses.
Subsequently, the area of canal increased. Canals are example to the synthetic corridors Cook, If they comprise substantial green areas along them, they may still contribute to the open space system of a city. The access to surrounding green areas of the canal is not limited, although the entrance into the canal construction is prohibited partial acess.
Municipality and the State Water Affairs department are responsible from the management of the canal area. Their effort includes only maintaining the canal structure.
“Public spaces should become the living rooms of the city.” Jan Gehl
Restoration and the redesign of the canal corridor for visual and ecological improvements are necessary. Results, so far, has elaborated that the drop occurred in the natural drainage corridors, natural, agricultural and open lands of Aydin, due to historic land use development. Some of these areas has been shifted to residential and commercial uses, while others are converted to different man made open space types such as parks and public open spaces. The city of Aydin puts a great deal of effort in bringing nature to the urban landscape through parks. Thus, the number of parks increased gradually.
However, their contribution in the open space system was and is, very low: these areas constituted only the 0. Analysis in GIS, site visits and the park statistics Esbah, yielded the fact that these parks were very small in area and dominated by impervious surfaces Table 2. Sustainable and ecologically sound design of urban parks is very crucial in Aydin to improve their various open space qualities.
Parks are open to all segments of society; however NGOs do not involve in the management of these areas. These parks are mostly on a neighborhood park scale.